Concrete in marine environment reading list

 
One of the most comprehensive follow ups on state of the art of floating concrete structures is available on internet as a pdf file.



http://www.tekna.no/arkiv/NB/Norwegian%20Concrete/Offshore%20Structures.pdf

.

This follow up presented 2004 at :

XIV National Conference on Structural Engineering, Acapulco 2004 - Offshore Structures - A new challenge

.....comes with a nice and comprehensive reading list - that anwers all questions on "concrete suitable material for marine structures....
 
... a second list of studies that are focused on submarines comes below...
 
...References

[1] Morgan, R. G. Development of the concrete hull. "Concrete Afloat", Proceedings of the
conference on concrete ships and floating structures organized by The Concrete Society in
association with the Royal Institution of Naval Architects and held in London on 3 and 4
March, 1977.

[2] Gloyd, C. S. Concrete Floating Bridges. Concrete International, May 1988.

[3] Anderson, A. R. Design and Construction of a 375.000 bbl Prestressed Concrete Floating LPG
Storage Facility for the JAVA Sea. Offshore Technology Conference, OTC 2487, 1976.

[4] Sannum, H. Heidrun, The First Concrete TLP. The Future Development of the North Sea and
Atlantic Frontier Regions. OCS, Aberdeen 25 and 26 January 1995.

[5] Ruud, M. The Troll Olje Development Project. Vision Eureka, New Technology for Concrete
Structures Offshore. Lillehammer 13 & 16 June 1994

[6] Valenchon, Nagel, Viallon, Belbeoc’h, Rouillon: The NKOSSA concrete oil production barge.
OMAE 1995 - Copenhagen - 14th International conference - June 18-22 1995.

[7] Valenchon, Nagel, Viallon, Belbeoc’h, Rouillon: The NKOSSA concrete oil production barge.
Paper presented at DOT, 30 Oct. / 1 st Nov. 1995, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

[8] Sare and Yee Operational experience with pre-stressed concrete barges "Concrete Afloat",
Proceedings of the conference on concrete ships and floating structures organized by The
Concrete Society in association with the Royal Institution of Naval Architects and held in
London on 3 and 4 March, 1977.

[9] Fjeld (NC), Hall (Phillips), Hoff (Mobil), Michel (Doris), Robberstad (Elf), Vegge (Norw.
Petrol. Directorate), Warland (Statoil): The North Sea concrete platforms - 20 years of
experience, OTC 1994, Houston

[10] Bech, S., Carlsen, J.E.: "Durability of High-Strength Offshore Concrete Structures".
Proceedings - 5th. International Symposium on Utilisation of High Strength/High Performance
Concrete. Sandefjord, Norway, June 1999.

[11] Derrington, J. A. Prestressed concrete platforms for process plants. Proceedings of the
conference on concrete ships and floating structures organized by The Concrete Society in
association with the Royal Institution of Naval Architects and held in London on 3 and 4
March, 1977.

[12] Morgan, R. G. History of and Experience with Concrete Ships. Proceedings of the conference
on concrete ships and floating structures, Sept. 15-19, 1975 / Berkeley, California, Ben C.
Gerwick jr. Editor.

[13] Nanni, A. and Lista, W.L. Concrete Cracking in Coastal Areas: Problems and Solutions.
Concrete International, Dec. 1988

[14] FIP (Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte) state of the art report: The inspection,
maintenance and repair of concrete sea structures, August 1982

XIV National Conference on Structural Engineering,
Acapulco 2004

Offshore Structures - A new challenge

Knut Sandvik, Rolf Eie and Jan-Diederik Advocaat,

of Aker Kvaerner Engineering & Technology AS, Arnstein Godejord, Kåre O.Hæreid,

Kolbjørn Høyland and Tor Ole Olsen, of Dr.techn.Olav Olsen a.s - Norway

 

 

As additional recommeded studies with special focus on submarine offshore structures we recommend:

 
 
 
Second list :
 

Submarine Focused Concrete Hull Studies

 
 
A Decade of Ocean Testing of Pressure-Resistant Concrete Structures
Rail, R.
OCEANS
Volume 15, Issue , Aug 1983 Page(s): 593 - 597
Digital Object Identifier

Summary: By means of long-term deep-ocean exposure and laboratory testing, experimental data have been obtained on compressive strength behavior, permeability, and durability of pressure-resistant concrete structural models (concrete spheres 66-inch O.D. by 4-1/8-inch wall thickness) subjected to continuously sustained hydrostatic pressure loading. After 10-1/2 years of ocean exposure at water depths of 1,840 to 5,075 feet, the major findings include: (a) The implosion (failure) strength and stiffness of the concrete spheres and the uniaxial compressive strength of concrete specimens increased during the first 5-1/2 years exposure in the ocean and remained essentially constant during the next 5 years; (b) There has been no evidence of seawater permeating through the walls into the interior of ocean-exposed spheres externally coated with a waterproofing material; uncoated (bare concrete) spheres have a very low rate of water ingress, i.e., a permeability coefficient of about10^{-14}ft/ sec; and (c) Visual inspection and microstructure examination of retrieved specimens have not revealed any significant deterioration of the concrete matrix; no corrosion was visible on steel reinforcing bars which had as little as one inch clear cover. This program has been a decade-long demonstration of the effective use of concrete in the ocean; it has been shown that concrete is a durable, reliable material for pressure-resistant structures for long-term deep-ocean applications.

 
FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR CONCRETE SUBMARINE
Accession No 00127041
Authors SMITH, D A
Corp. Authors
/ Publisher Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers information
Publication Date 19750300
Description 39 p.; References(19)

A feasibility study was conducted by utilizing classical analysis techniques and state of the art construction methods. Prestressed concrete was found to be a viable material for shallow to medium depth submersibles. It was also found that concrete offers both performance and economic advantages over steel. The performance advantages include: freedom from maintenance, durability, readily-available materials, superior performance under impact and accident conditions, non temperature-sensitive, easily formed into compound curvature, and concrete has good insulating properties. Economic analysis has indicated that the concrete pressure hull would cost between 50% and 60% of the equivalent steel hull.

A more extensive treatment can be found in the final report, Contract No. N66001-74-C-0408, Naval Undersea Center, San Diego, California. This research was carried out at the University of California, Berkeley, California, and supported in part by Naval Undersea Center Contract No. N66001-74-C-0408.

Source:
http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/record/tris/00127041.html

 
BEHAVIOR OF SPHERICAL CONCRETE HULLS UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING-PART III.

Relationship Between thickness-To-Diameter Ratio and Critical Pressures, Strains, and Water permeation Rates, Technical Report R588, Naval Civil Engineering laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by J.D. Stachiw and K. Mack, June 1968, 36 pages.

Sixteen hollow concrete spheres of 16-inch outside diameter were subjected to external hydrostatic pressure to investigate the relationship between the sphere's shell thickness and (1) its critical pressure, (2) permeability, and (3) strain magnitude. The shell thickness of the spheres varied from 1 inch to 4 inches in 1-inch steps. All spheres were cast from the same concrete mix, cured under identical temperature and moisture conditions, and tested in the same manner. The strength of concrete in the spheres at the time of testing, as established by uniaxial compression tests on 3 x 6-inch cylinders, was in the 9,000-to-11,000-psi range. The critical pressure of waterproofed hollow concrete spheres was found to be approximately a linear function of the sphere's thickness; the spheres imploded at pressures from 3,240 to 13,900 psi, depending on their thickness. Concrete spheres permeated by seawater failed at hydrostatic pressures 30% to 15% lower than identical waterproofed spheres. In all cases the stress in the spheres at the time of implosion was considerably higher than in concrete test cylinders prepared of the same mix and of the same curing history subjected to uniaxial compression. The resistance of concrete to permeation by seawater into the interior of nonwater proofed spheres at 2,000-psi hydrostatic pressure was found to be an exponential function of shell thickness. The rate of flow into the sphere's interior ranged from 6.1 to 0.197 ml/day/ ft2 of exterior surface, depending on the thickness of shell.

 
STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF UNSTIFFENED TOROIDAL SHELLS,
Technical Report R 649, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, W. J. Nordell, J. E. Crawford, and R. M. Beard, November 1969, 21 pages.

Seven model epoxy toroidal shells were tested, and the results were compared with those from analytical solutions. The toroidal shells had a mean radius about the axis of revolution of 6 inches, a mean tube radius of 2 inches, and a mean shell thickness of 0.086 inch. The static elastic strain response of the epoxy models was in satisfactory agreement with that computed using a finite element analysis for axisymmetric shells. Critical buckling pressures for the models were approximately 85% of the analytical prediction, which was based on the mean dimensions.

 
INFLUENCE OF STIFF EQUATORIAL RINGS ON CONCRETE SPHERICAL HULLS SUBJECTED TO HYDROSTATIC LOADING, Technical Report R735, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Ca, by L.F. Kahn and J.D. Stachiw, August 1971, 61 pages.

Thirteen hollow concrete spheres of 16-inch outside diameter x 14-inch inside diameter and one sphere of 66-inch outside diameter x 57.75-inch inside diameter were assembled from hemispheres fastened together with equatorial joint rings of different stiffnesses. The joint rings were made from polycarbonate plastic, glass reinforced plastic laminate, aluminum, titanium, low carbon steel, and alloy steel. After instrumentation with electrical resistance strain gages, the spheres were tested to destruction under external hydrostatic loading. Equatorial joints that are either considerably stiffer or more compliant than concrete lower the short-term implosion pressure of the concrete spheres by as much as 27%; the glass reinforced plastic joint ring did not significantly reduce the implosion pressure. It is recommended that equatorial joint rings be designed to have a stiffness approximately equal to that of the concrete shell and be made of glass reinforced plastic. If stiffer joint rings are used, the operational pressure should be 30% lower than that of a sphere without a mechanical lock joint mechanism.

Mobile offshore base concepts. Concrete hull and steel topsides

Gunnar Rognaas, Jun Xu, Severin Lindseth, and Finn Rosendahl.

Aker Maritime ASA, Postbox 249, Lilleaker, N-0216, Norway

Available online 31 January 2001.

Abstract

This paper describes two different types of concepts for a mobile offshore base (MOB). The concepts are hybrids with high strength light weight aggregate concrete (LWC60) in the hull and steel in the topside deck. One concept is a semi submersible type consisting of four identical modules. The MOB is basically 1525 m (5000 ft.) long. The second concept is a single structural unit consisting of a central concrete core 890 m long with a steel cantilever 317 m long at each end. The total length of the unit is 1525 m. Results from detailed code check of fatigue life for the concrete hull is included. It is concluded that fatigue is a "non-issue" for the concrete hull with a design life of 100 years. Possible construction methods and schedules are also presented.

Author Keywords: Floating structures; Concrete

source:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_

 
DEVELOPMENT OF END-CLOSURE SYSTEMS FOR UNDERSEA CONCRETE PRESSURE RESISTANT CYLINDRICAL HULLS, CR 72.017, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, Bechtel Corporation, May 1972, 120 pages.

A flat steel bulkhead of sandwich construction was selected as the closure for the condition where two cylinders are to be joined end-to-end. Although this is a relatively heavy closure, it provides a more convenient mating surface than a hemispherical arrangement. A vertical guide system incorporating a ball-and-funnel assembly

was selected for joining the cylinders. When the cylinders are joined, a 10 ft. by 10 ft. section may be removed from the center of each closure to -provide limited access between cylinders.

Emphasis has been placed on structural design of the closure in the first phase of this re-port. In developing the several concepts the 60 ft. diameter concrete cylinder was used as the basic case. However, a parametric study was conducted involving closures for the 20 ft. and 40 ft. diameter concrete cylinders.

Closure handling methods were emphasized in the on-land phase of the study. Using the structural calculations developed in Phase I, as a foundation, only limited additional calculations were necessary to assure concept feasibility.

Because the variation of closure weight with respect to size is more critical on land than in the buoyant medium of water, preferred closure concepts were developed for the 20 ft. , 40 ft. , and 60 ft. diameter concrete cylinders.

For the 20 ft. diameter cylinder, an oversized steel sphere with an opening equal to the cylinders' diameter is the recommended end-closure . The sphere, similar to a ball-valve, is mounted on trunnions, and may be rotated to provide either full access to the cylinder or completely seal the opening.

Closure weight does become significant when a 40 ft. diameter cylinder is considered. In this case the flat steel bulkhead is recommended because its geometry permits a rolling movement. The bulkhead is rolled on its edge on a prepared mat, away from the cylinder. The rolling motion is induced by shifting water between the bulkhead's internal compartments. In this manner, heavy lifts are avoided.

Because of the excessively large weight associated with any closure configuration for the 60 ft. diameter concrete cylinder, the preferred concept consists of floating a full spherical concrete shell closure from the cylinder while in shallow water and then transporting the cylinder to land. A light steel secondary closure is necessary to keep the cylinder water tight until it reaches land.

As a result of this study, it is concluded that, although closure structures of this size and weight are not common, design and construction is within the current state of technology. It is recommended however, that due to the conceptual nature of this study, further evaluation be undertaken including model design and testing.

 
BEHAVIOR OF SPHERICAL CONCRETE HULLS UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING-PART II.
Effect of Penetrations, Technical Report R547, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by J.D. Stachiw, October 1967, 58 pages.

The objective of the study was (1) to show that concrete hulls with window and hatch penetrations for ocean bottom habitats can be built, and (2) to determine if the collapse pressure of such hulls is degraded by the incorporation of properly designed penetrations. All of the experimental work was performed on six concrete spheres (16-inch outside diameter and 14-inch inside diameter) cast from concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength of 10,000 psi. The concrete sphere models failed under hydrostatic pressures ranging from 2,675 psi to 3,400 psi, depending on the type of penetration insert. It was found that the collapse pressure of a concrete hull equipped with properly designed operational windows and hatches was the same as that of a similar concrete hull without penetrations.

 
LONG-TERM, DEEP-OCEAN TEST OF CONCRETE SPHERICAL STRUCTURES-RESULTS AFTER 13 YEARS,
Technical Report R-915, Naval Civil Engineering laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by R. D. Rail and R. L. Wendt, July 1985, 60 pages.

In 1971, a long-term, deep-ocean test was started on 18 pressure-resistant, hollow concrete spheres, 66 inches in outside diameter by 4.12 inches in wall thickness. The spheres were placed in the ocean near the seafloor at depths from 1,840 to 5,075 feet. over a 13-year period, annual inspections of the spheres using submersibles have provided data on time-dependent failure and reliability. After 5.3 years of exposure, three spheres were retrieved from the ocean for laboratory testing, and after 10. 5 years two more spheres were retrieved and tested. This report is the third report in a series describing and summarizing the findings from the ocean and laboratory tests. Data on concrete compressive strength pin, short-term implosion strength of the retrieved spheres, and permeability and durability of the concrete were obtained. The data have shown that concrete exhibits good behavior for ocean applications. High quality, well-cured concrete can be expected to gain and maintain strength when submerged in seawater under high pressure. Concrete is a durable material in the deep ocean; neither deterioration of the concrete matrix nor corrosion of reinforcing steel are problems, even though the concrete becomes saturated with seawater. Uncoated concrete has a very low rate of permeation of seawater through the concrete and even this small flow can be prevented by a waterproofing coating.

 
HANDBOOK FOR DESIGN OF UNDERSEA, PRESSURE-RESISTANT CONCRETE STRUCTURES, Technical Notes 1760, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by H. H. Haynes and R.D. Rail, October 1986, 83 pages.

The design approach for predicting implosion pressures of thick-walled cylinders and spheres is based on material failure in the wall of the structure; the predicted failure stress in the structure is related to the standard concrete compressive strength, fc, by empirically derived strength increase factors.

 
BEHAVIOR OF SPHERICAL CONCRETE HULLS UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING-PART III.

Relationship Between thickness-To-Diameter Ratio and Critical Pressures, Strains, and Water permeation Rates, Technical Report R588, Naval Civil Engineering laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by J.D. Stachiw and K. Mack, June 1968, 36 pages.

Sixteen hollow concrete spheres of 16-inch outside diameter were subjected to external hydrostatic pressure to investigate the relationship between the sphere's shell thickness and (1) its critical pressure, (2) permeability, and (3) strain magnitude. The shell thickness of the spheres varied from 1 inch to 4 inches in 1-inch steps. All spheres were cast from the same concrete mix, cured under identical temperature and moisture conditions, and tested in the same manner. The strength of concrete in the spheres at the time of testing, as established by uniaxial compression tests on 3 x 6-inch cylinders, was in the 9,000-to-11,000-psi range. The critical pressure of waterproofed hollow concrete spheres was found to be approximately a linear function of the sphere's thickness; the spheres imploded at pressures from 3,240 to 13,900 psi, depending on their thickness. Concrete spheres permeated by seawater failed at hydrostatic pressures 30% to 15% lower than identical waterproofed spheres. In all cases the stress in the spheres at the time of implosion was considerably higher than in concrete test cylinders prepared of the same mix and of the same curing history subjected to uniaxial compression. The resistance of concrete to permeation by seawater into the interior of nonwater proofed spheres at 2,000-psi hydrostatic pressure was found to be an exponential function of shell thickness. The rate of flow into the sphere's interior ranged from 6.1 to 0.197 ml/day/ ft2 of exterior surface, depending on the thickness of shell.

 
EXTERNAL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE LOADING OF CONCRETE CYLINDER SHELLS,
79-PVP 125, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, by H.H. Haynes, et at, June 1979, 12 pages.

An experimental test program on 1 5 unreinforced concrete cylindrical shells was conducted by subjecting the specimens to external hydrostatic pressure loading. Specimen size was an outside diameter of 54 in. (1 372 mm), length 127 in. (3225 mm), and wall thickness of 1.31, 1.97, or 3.39 in. (33, 50, or 86 mm). The implosion strength and structural response of the specimens were determined. An independent analysis was conducted, without the benefit of the test results, using a finite element program called NONSAP-A with an advanced constitutive relation subroutine for the concrete. The analysis predicted the behavior of the specimens with good accuracy.

 
DESIGN FOR IMPLOSION OF CONCRETE CYLINDER STRUCTURES UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING,
Technical Report 874, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by Harvey H. Haynes, August 1979, 85 pages

This report presents updated design guides for both thick- and thin-walled concrete cylinder structures under hydrostatic loading. The design approach for thick-walled cylinders has been changed from that described in previous work to a semi-empirical basis; improvements in implosion strength on the order of 10% are found. A test on a thick-walled 10-ft-diam (3.05-m) structure loaded to failure in the ocean is reported. A major change in the guides is continued.

 
BEHAVIOR OF SPHERICAL CONCRETE HULLS UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING-PART II.
Effect of Penetrations, Technical Report R547, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by J.D. Stachiw, October 1967, 58 pages.

The objective of the study was (1) to show that concrete hulls with window and hatch penetrations for ocean bottom habitats can be built, and (2) to determine if the collapse pressure of such hulls is degraded by the incorporation of properly designed penetrations. All of the experimental work was performed on six concrete spheres (16-inch outside diameter and 14-inch inside diameter) cast from concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength of 10,000 psi. The concrete sphere models failed under hydrostatic pressures ranging from 2,675 psi to 3,400 psi, depending on the type of penetration insert. It was found that the collapse pressure of a concrete hull equipped with properly designed operational windows and hatches was the same as that of a similar concrete hull without penetrations.

 
Some Properties of Anti-Washout Underwater Concrete for Deep Sea in the 1,000-m Class
Accession number;05A0875740
Title;Some Properties of Anti-Washout Underwater Concrete for Deep Sea in the 1,000-m Class
Author;MATSUMOTO SHIN'YA(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) IKEYA TSUYOSHI(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) ONO TOSHIO(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) SAKAI GORO(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) AKIYAMA SHINGO(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) MATSUBARA NORIAKI(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) FUKUYAMA TAKAKO(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.) KISHIDA TETSUYA(Japan Sea Work. Co.,Ltd.)
Journal Title;Annual Report. Kajima Technical Research Institute, Kajima Corporation
Journal Code:F0127A
ISSN:0918-015X
VOL.53;NO.;PAGE.61-66(2005)
Figure&Table&Reference;FIG.23, TBL.6, REF.5
Pub. Country;Japan
Language;Japanese
Abstract;The purpose of this study is to develop anti-washout underwater concrete for underwater structures likely to be used for mining and exploitation of methane hydrate deposits lying under the seabed at depths of up to 1,000m. This report proposes a fiber-reinforced anti-washout underwater concrete intended for use in deep sea at a depth of about 1,000m and discusses its fluidity and strength properties. The study showed that in deep sea at a depth of about 1,000m the concrete has a fluidity comparable to that achievable in the atmosphere (on land) and has a compressive strength comparable to or greater than that achievable in the atmosphere and that excellent flexural strength and flexural ductility of the concrete can be achieved by reinforcing the concrete with fibers. The results of a trial calculation performed in the form of flow analysis based on slump flow tests conducted on the newly developed concrete suggest that it may be possible in the years to come to predict and evaluate the fluidity and filling ability of the concrete by numerical simulation. (author abst.)
 
INFLUENCE OF LENGTH-TO-DIAMETER RATIO ON BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE CYLINDRICAL HULLS UNDER HYDROSTATIC LOADING,
Technical Report R 696, Naval Civil Engineering laboratory, Port Hueneme, CA, by H.H. Haynes and R.J. Toss, September 1970, 50 pages.

Fourteen hollow concrete cylindrical hulls ranging in length from 8 to 128 inches and having an outside diameter of 16 inches and a wall thickness of 2 inches were subjected to hydrostatic loading to determine: (1) the effect of cylinder length-to-outside-diameter ratio (L/D.) on the implosion pressure and strain behavior, and (2) the distance from the edge of the cylinder in which radial displacement was influenced by the end closure. Hemispherical end closures were joined to the cylinders with epoxy, silicone rubber, or steel dowel pins and epoxy. The uniaxial compressive strength of the concrete averaged approximately 9,500 psi. Test results showed that the ratio of implosion pressure to uniaxial concrete strength, Pim/f,, decreased as the L/Do ratio increased from 0.5 to 2, and then the Pim /f' ratio became constant. Thus, an "infinitely long cylinder" was one having an L/Do ratio >, 2, the effect of the end closure on the behavior of the cylinder becoming negligible at a distance >, I diameter from its edge.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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